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MANILA CATHEDRAL: Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception (Historical past, Mass Schedule & Marriage ceremony Charges)

The Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception or largely often called the Manila Cathedral is taken into account because the Mom of all Church buildings, Cathedrals and Basilicas of the Philippines. 

Be taught extra about Manila Cathedral as you learn extra beneath.


The Minor Basilica and Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Filipino: Basilika Menor at Kalakhang Katedral ng Kalinis-linisang Paglilihi; Spanish: Basílica Menor y Catedral Metropolitana de la Inmaculada Concepción), often known as the Manila Cathedral (Spanish: Catedral de Manila), is the cathedral of Manila and basilica situated in Intramuros, the historic walled metropolis inside at present’s trendy metropolis of Manila, Philippines. It’s devoted to the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary because the Patroness of the nation. The cathedral serves because the episcopal seat of the Archbishop of Manila.

The cathedral was initially a parish church in Manila underneath the Archdiocese of Mexico in 1571, till it grew to become a separate diocese on February 6, 1579 upon the issuance of the papal bull, Illius Fulti Præsido by Pope Gregory XIII. The cathedral was broken and destroyed a number of instances because the authentic construction was in-built 1581 whereas the eighth and present construction of the cathedral was accomplished in 1958.

The basilica has merited a papal endorsement from Pope Gregory XIII and three apostolic visits from Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis. On April 27, 1981, Pope John Paul II issued papal bull Quod Ipsum designating the cathedral as a minor basilica by his personal Motu Proprio.

Information about Manila Cathedral

  • Architectural type: Romanesque Revival structure
  • Architect: Fernando Ocampo
  • Rector: Reginald R. Malicdem
  • Building value: ₱70 million 2012–2014 restoration
  • Closed: February 7, 2012 to March 25, 2014
  • Based: 1571

Manila Cathedral Historical past

The Church earlier than it grew to become a Cathedral: 1571

The Church of Manila was established by the secular Juan de Vivero who had the respect of baptizing Rajah Matanda. Vivero first arrived in these shores in 1566 as chaplain of the nao or galleon of San Geronimo which had come to assist the Spanish colonization of the newly found islands.

He was given the particular privilege and sole college by the Archbishop of Miexico to determine the religious administration of the brand new Philippine colony. Later, Vivero would turn out to be the primary vicar-general and the primary ecclesiastical choose of Manila.

The First Cathedral 1581 – 1583

As Spain firmly established herself within the new colony by the succeeding years, so did the Church which witnessed the creation of the Diocese of Manila. On February 6, 1579, Pope Gregory XIII issued in Rome the Papal Bull establishing the Bishopric or the Diocese of Manila, suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mexico. (A duplicate of this Bull is stored on the Archdiocesan Archives of Manila). The discrepancy as to the precise yr of creation of the diocese – whether or not 1578, as indicated within the copy of the bull, or 1579 – arose as a result of in he late 15 th century, the Julian system of reckoning days throughout the calendar was questioned till the Gregorian calendar was adopted. The church of Manila was raised to the rank of cathedral underneath the title of “Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.” The cathedral was to be underneath a bishop who would take care of the suitable enlargement of its constructing and restoration right into a cathedral church.

The Spanish monarchy was making preparations for the development of the brand new cathedral in Manila. On Might 13, 1579, a Royal Cedula from the Spanish king mandated the governor basic of the Philippines to assemble a reasonably ample cathedral on a handy website, the bills of which had been to be divided among the many natives, Royal Treasury, and the encomenderos.

On Might 22, 1579, a part of the tithes belonging to the king throughout a interval of ten years was given for the development of the Manila Cathedral. With such quantity and assist, the development of the cathedral started. This assist from the monarchy continued till the 18 th century when the cathedral, a sufferer of pure disasters and time, underwent repairs and reconstructions.

On September 21, 1581, with full pontifical and royal authority, Bishop Salazar created the act to erect and located the brand new Cathedral of Manila underneath the advocation of the Immaculate Conception, the unique titular patroness of the previous parochial church. He then proceeded to construct a cathedral to exchange the previous parish church.

The primary Cathedral of Manila was constructed by Fray Bishop Domingo de Salazar out of wooden, bamboo, and nipa – supplies which had been utilized in all homes and different primary neighborhood providers within the metropolis. It was on December 21, 1581 that the parish church of Manila was raised formally right into a cathedral.

The Hearth of 1583

The Cathedral church was destroyed in 1583 by a fireplace which razed the town. Throughout the funeral mass for Governor Basic Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa at San Agustin Church, a candle fell on the catafalque, burning it and the church. The flames unfold throughout Manila, destroying many homes and constructions of the identical easy supplies. Together with the Cathedral of Manila, the Bishop’s palace was destroyed together with all necessary church papers and data, and the proceedings of the primary Synod held within the Philippines. The cathedral was rebuilt utilizing the identical supplies of nipa, bamboo, and wooden.

Within the Junta Common de Manila of 1586, the cathedral was severely criticized as too shoddy a construction for its stature. It was described to be “of wooden and thatch, so poor, so disorganized and disadvantaged, a dishonor and an impairment to our religion and Christian faith and to our Republic and to the leaders who govern it.”

On January 20, 1587, the Spanish monarch issued a royal decree ordering the Governor Basic Santiago de Vera to assemble a brand new edifice for the cathedral. Nonetheless, the easy construction then constructed lasted solely till June 15, 1588 when a hurricane destroyed it with nearly all of the homes in Manila.

On June 31, 1588, a letter from the town of Manila offered for 3,000 pesos, divided among the many native residents, the natives and the Actual Hacienda, to be spent for the wall foundations of the cathedral church which, by that point, had been already 2 brazas in peak. Though this sum was thought of inadequate to carry the partitions to the mandatory peak, it was a welcome assist.

The Second Cathedral 1591 – 1600

In 1591, on the age of 76 years, Bishop Salazar sailed from Manila to Spain, accompanied by the Dominican Fray Miguel de Benavides, to work for the erection of Manila into an archdiocese. He left the cathedral constructing in a state of close to completion, sufficient for mass to be celebrated in it. The primary stone cathedral had a central nave and two collateral ones.

The succeeding years noticed the continual efforts made to finish the cathedral construction. A Royal Cedula, dated June 11, 1594, ordered Governor Basic Dasmariñas to allocate 12,000 ducats for the bells, the ornaments, retablos, organs, lamps, and different supplies the cathedral would require.

The Elevation of Manila as Archdiocese: 1595

On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII issued a quick erecting Manila right into a Metropolitan Archdiocese and its three suffragan dioceses of Nueva Segovia (Vigan), Nueva Caceres (Naga), and Santisimo Nombre de Jesus ( Cebu ). Its new territory now prolonged “100 leagues north and south, the villages had been distant from its capital, being 40 leagues to the north, and about 60 to the south. It’s bounded on the north by the Diocese of Nueva Segovia and on the south by that of Cebu. Its western boundaries are maritime.”

Progress in Building: 1597

In 1595, sacred relics got by the Holy See and dropped at Manila by the Jesuit Fray Alfonso Sanchez. The relics had been from 155 martyrs, 20 popes, St. Polycarp, and St. Potenciana. A construction was constructed particularly to accommodate the relics in conjunction with the cathedral. When the construction was accomplished, the relics had been formally deposited there in 1597. Governor Juan Niño de Tabora and his spouse Doña Magdalena Saldivar y Medoza constructed one other collateral construction to shelter subsequent relics.

The First Archbishop: Fray Ignacio de Santibañez

The second bishop assigned to Manila to reign as the primary archbishop of the newly erected archdiocese was Fray Ignacio de Santibañez of the Order of San Francisco.

Archbishop Santibañez gained fame as an excellent preacher and speaker. Nonetheless, his administration of the archdiocese was short-lived. He died on August 14, 1598 solely two months and 4 days since he took over the Archdiocese of Manila.

The Earthquake of 1599 and 1600

In 1597, the Ecclesiastical Chapter or Cathedral Chapter wrote to the king that the buildings for the cathedral weren’t but completed. There was nonetheless neither a chapter corridor, baptistry, bell tower nor cloister. The principal altar, two auxiliary ones and the choir had been constructed solely from alms. This cathedral suffered throughout an earthquake in 1599 and, nonetheless unfinished, skilled one other robust earthquake the next yr. At midnight of December 31, 1600, 29 years after Manila was established, a really robust earthquake hit the colonial capital, which nearly utterly destroyed the cathedral.

The Third Cathedral 1614 – 1645

Archbishop Benavides initiated the rebuilding of the Manila Cathedral in stone however he by no means lived lengthy sufficient to see the cathedral completed. He handed away on July 26, 1605, two years after his ascension to the archbishopric. The cathedral challenge was left within the fingers of his successor, Diego Vasquez de Mercado, who grew to become archbishop on June 1, 1610.

By 1607, the Manila Cathedral was in such a depressing situation that it grew to become essential to abandon it and switch cathedral providers to the Chapel of San Andres of the Colegio de Santa Potenciana. This situation continued for the following seven years till a brand new one in every of stone was constructed.

Archbishop Mercado continued the late prelate’s challenge. He expanded, beautified, and accomplished the cathedral constructing. In 1614, a brand new Manila Cathedral of three naves, seven chapels, and ten altars arose. It was constructed largely from funds donated by the licentiate Don Francisco Gomez de Arellano, fourth dean of the cathedral, from the alms solicited by the nice archbishop from residents of Manila,and from the Royal Treasury.

The Earthquakes of 1621 and 1645

It was not lengthy after when an earthquake on August 1, 1621,brought about critical damages on the cathedral’s partitions, columns, and roofs. The cathedral grew to become so structurally weak and unsafe such that it posed hazard to anybody who desired to go contained in the constructing. It was crucial to rebuild it since repairs wouldn’t enhance its depressing situation. At this era, the cathedral didn’t also have a primary retablo however solely a cover with a picture of Christ. Males had been even employed simply to protect and maintain watch over the ornaments and different valuable objects throughout the cathedral.

Between July 1, 1641,the date of Archbishop Hernando Guerrero’s demise, and July 1645, the date when Archbishop Fernando Montero took possession of the archdiocese, the cathedral underwent reconstruction. Nonetheless, the cathedral fell sufferer once more to nature’s devastation when an earthquake destroyed it on November 30, 1645, feastday of St. Andrew.

The cathedral simply fell in ruins, its bell tower crumbled to the bottom, and its partitions diminished to their foundations. Solely the capilla mayor and a wall remained. The archives contained in the chapter corridor had been irretrievably buried. Books and papers relating to the early historical past of the colony had been misplaced ceaselessly.

The Manila Cathedral was so devastated {that a} camarin fabricated from wooden with bamboo and nipa for a roof was constructed to quickly home the flock within the plaza going through the Governor Basic’s Palace. The cathedral was diminished to a reminiscence along with all of the constructions within the metropolis. The earthquake impoverished the cathedral a lot with its sources of earnings misplaced.

In 1645, after the earthquake, a beneficiant donor, Doña Luisa de Cosar, widow of the previous Governor of Formosa, Sergeant Main Francisco Suarez de Figueroa, provided to determine an endowment to have the Sagrario de los Curas, or Clergymen’ Sanctuary, and chapel for the Most Blessed Sacrament rebuilt. This was her method of thanksgiving for being spared from the earthquakes of November 30 and December 4, 1645 and a way to specific her love and devotion to the Blessed Sacrament. The Cathedral Chapter accepted the endowment with all its stipulations for the reconstruction, repairs, and upkeep of the Cathedral’s Sanctuary Chapel.

The Fourth Cathedral 1681 – 1751

The method of reconstruction of the entire cathedral was to start out solely after some years upon the arrival of Miguel de Poblete in 1653. On July 24, 1653, the brand new archbishop Miguel de Poblete entered the town of Manila after arriving within the port of Cavite from Acapulco and sadly seen the ruins of the previous cathedral and the non permanent camarin which served because the cathedral in the midst of the plaza. He had the ugly camarin eliminated and cathedral providers quickly put in within the Church of the Confraternity of La Santa Mesa de Misericordia. For the following six years, the Misericordia Church would perform because the interim cathedral. Instantly, the brand new archbishop deliberate to reconstruct the stone cathedral.

On April 20, 1654, the cornerstone of the brand new cathedral was laid by Archbishop Poblete with the governor basic, the Royal Audencia, the Cabildos, and the non secular communities inattendance. Archbishop Poblete personally went on foot round Manila, soliciting donations for the cathedral challenge.

From 1658 to 1659, work on the cathedral was hastened. At this stage, contributions started pouring in. The Spanish monarch donated 22,000 pesos from the Royal Treasury of Mexico. Supporting the completion of the challenge had been the merchandise of the vacancies of the archbishopric. When all of the donations had been spent, the Archbishop offered his silverware, his pectoral cross and ring simply to maintain the development going.

By 1659, the cathedral’s naves had been already enclosed and the Sagrario de los Curas, the choir and the Chapter corridor had been completed. Presently, Archbishop Poblete determined to carry Holy Mass in it. The Church of Misericordia, which had served as interim cathedral, was requested to switch all of the cathedral ornaments to the brand new construction’s vestry for this occasion. On December 5, 1659, the archbishop consecrated the large bell and blessed the belfry of the brand new Manila Cathedral.

On December 7, 1659, eve of the feast of Our Girl of the Immaculate Conception, the Archbishop celebrated low Mass within the Sanctuary of the brand new cathedral. The next day, the feast itself, a Pontifical Sung Mass was celebrated within the cathedral with the governor basic, the Royal Audencia, the non secular, and different dignitaries in attendance. From then on, the divine features had been carried out by the archbishop within the cathedral.

Repairs underneath Archbishop Rodriguez

Fray Juan Angel Rodriguez ascended to the archbishopric of Manila in 1736 and initiated repairs and renovations on the cathedral. In 1737, the media naranja of the bell tower was demolished and rebuilt in brick with a cupola a lot prettier than its antecedent. The cathedral church itself was in a ruinous situation. Its hardwood flooring was deplorable, the picket arched ceiling so broken, and the roof, particularly the areas over the collateral naves, had fallen down. The retablos, which had been poorly handled, suffered from the results of water the repeatedly leaked from the ceiling and ran over it. The choir space was intolerably humid and filthy, a situation led to by bats which inhabited the area. Completely, the cathedral was very unserviceable aside from its partitions.

The Cathedral by Archbishop Poblete and His Successors till 1751

Previous to the cathedral’s reconstruction by Uguccioni, the construction was a easy and lengthy quadrilateral church annexed with auxiliary providers and areas to enrich and assist the primary congregation or worship space. To its left aspect, close to the primary portal, was the Cathedral Chapter corridor and an octagonal bell tower. The cathedral was divided into three naves – a principal nave and two collateral ones – separated by colonnades. Seven chapels based by the beneficiant trustworthy flanked the aspect naves. In the back of the primary altar had been the vestry, a small parlor and the steps resulting in the non-public room above.

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The Fifth Cathedral 1760 – 1852

Archbishop Pedro de la Santisima Trinidad Martinez de Arisala grew to become Manila’s vicar in 1747. He noticed the dilapidated state of the cathedral and determined to have it reconstructed by a high quality architect to keep away from any future defects within the edifice each time pure disasters struck the town. The archbishop requested Nueva España to ship an excellent maestro who may deal with the work and in 1748 knowledgeable the Spanish monarch {that a} new cathedral ought to exchange the current one.

Earlier than the Royal Cedula may attain Manila, a Florentine architect and engineer, within the particular person of Juan de Uguccioni, handed by Manila through the latter finish of the yr 1750. A missionary of the Sagrada Congregacion de Propaganda Fide, Fray Uguccioni was on his method to Goa, India, after serving the English in a technical capability within the Malvar coast.

The Fifth Cathedral 1760 – 1852

The 1751 Reconstruction by Fray Juan de Uguccioni

The Manila Cathedral underwent a serious transformation underneath the fingers of the Italian architect Juan de Uguccioni and the obrero mayor Don Estevan Roxas y Melo. Don Estevan was a local of Lima, Peru, and was secretary to Archbishop Rodriguez since 1736. After the demise of the archbishop, Roxas opted to remain completely on this colony and was appointed ultimately as medio racionero and later as canonigo de gracia within the Cathedral. Due to his expertise within the sciences and arithmetic, in addition to for effectivity in his duties, he was appointed by Archbishop Trinidad because the obrero main of the cathedral reconstruction.

The Cathedral Chapter sought the permission of the governor basic to start out demolition work within the cathedral in order that reconstruction may start instantly, and for choir and different divine providers to be held quickly within the Church of San Andres of the School of Santa Potenciana. When cathedral providers had been put in in Santa Potenciana in January of 1751, demolition work on the cathedral instantly started.

The cathedral in 1792, by Fernando Brambila

The Earthquake of 1852

On the night time of September 16, 1852, an earthquake shook, broken, and destroyed church buildings and different edifices in Manila, leaving the primary façade and different areas of the cathedral in very extreme situation. Upon the request of the Cathedral Chapter, the Arquitecto de Hacienda, Juan Mendoza y Grajales, performed an inspection of the cathedral. In his report of October 6, 1852, Architect Mendoza cited that the cathedral positively suffered main harm.

The Sixth Cathedral 1858 – 1863

A yr after Grajales’ report, Governor Basic Antonio de Urbiztondo ordered the Cuerpo de Yngenieros or Corps of Engineers led by its commandant and chief Don Nicolas Valdes and commandant Fernando Fernandez de Cordoba to conduct one other inspection of the cathedral since Urbiztondo had misplaced confidence in Grajales. Grajales had made assurances earlier throughout a gathering with the Cathedral Chapter that no contingencies had been wanted because the cathedral (after the 1852 earthquake) didn’t pose any risk to lives and property. Regardless of such assurances, on March 6, 1853, a cornice from the media naranja or dome of the cathedral fell down, destroying part of the cathedral roof.

By October 1854, bids for the challenge had been submitted. Contractors who joined the bidding for the cathedral renovation and reworks had been Don Manuel Asuncion, Don Luciano Oliver who was a famend architect, Don Antonio Fua, Don Sixto Ejada Obispo, Don Esteban Transfiguracion, and Don Antonio Canals y Llinas, who was the director and proprietor of the Establecimiento Artistico in Arroceros. Don Sixto Ejada Obispo, who was then the Gobernadorcillo de Mestizos of Binondo and a training contractor, gained the bidding with the bottom bid worth of 45,300 pesos.

The challenge pushed by with the church buildings of the Archdiocese of Manila contributing half of their collected sanctorum for the work. Funds had been additionally backed by the Obras Pias and the Actual Hacienda.

The New Cathedral by Nicolas Valdes

Upon completion, the cathedral was opened to the general public on March 31, 1858. The restored cathedral possessed a wholly new façade. Eliminated had been the pediments and columns framing the aspect portals and the baroque mouldings framing the excessive home windows over these doorways. Left was a clearer visible area interrupted solely by the coupled pilasters that marked every vertical bay. Launched was a Neoclassic façade, with its architrave and triangular pediment over the primary portal. Sculptured figures topped each ends of the primary façade’s first stage and graced the semi-circular pediment of the higher story. As a complete, the baroque façade of Uguccioni’s cathedral was changed with a Neoclassic motif.

The Tragic Earthquake of 1863

On the night time of June 3, 1863, at about half previous seven, tragedy struck Manila when a powerful earthquake shook its buildings and residents. Many indios and Chinese language additionally died particularly those that had been within the night time market that hour. Many had been injured and buried within the tragic ruins that grew to become of the Manila Cathedral and the hospitals of Manila.

The Manila Cathedral grew to become an enormous heap of rubble burying members of the Cathedral Chapter and choir boys who had been chanting vespers throughout solemn rites for the celebration of Corpus Christi, in addition to an undetermined variety of the trustworthy who attended the rites. It took three days for staff to retrieve the our bodies of victims beneath the cathedral ruins.

The Seventh Cathedral 1879 – 1945

On April 13, 1870, Governor Carlos Maria de la Torre issued a directive giving the mandatory authorization to start the leveling of the cathedral ruins and empowering the eccelesiastical governor, Mateo Yague y Mateos, within the absence of Archbishop Gregorio Meliton Martinez who was attending the Concilia Vaticano in Rome, to designate the Arquitecto de la Administracion Native, Don Luciano Oliver, to be the dor director of works for the cathedral reconstruction. Yague was additionally licensed to arbitrate for the mandatory funds for the challenge, to ship out circulars calling on those that would wish to donate and to open a subscription from individuals prepared to assist the month-to-month salaries of staff to be employed within the cleansing and clearing of the ruins and within the reconstruction part.

The Seventh Cathedral 1879 – 1945

On April 18, 1870, throughout solemn rites within the Church of Santo Domingo, an eloquent discourse on the cathedral introduced out the specified response from the trustworthy who pledged to pay for the day by day wages of the laborers employed within the reconstruction. Within the morning of the next day, April 19, work on the leveling of the ruined cathedral commenced. Current to witness the primary part of the cathedral challenge had been Governor de la Torre, Yague y Mateos, cathedral canons, the parish priest of San Pedro ( Makati ), Luciano Oliver, authorities officers, and different company.

On June 15, 1870, Governor de la Torre issued an ordinance creating the Junta Consultativa para los Restauraciones de las Yglesias or Consultative Committee for the Restoration of Church buildings. Shaped particularly to revive Intramuros church buildings, the committee would help within the restoration of the Manila Cathedral. The Junta had the governor basic for its president, the dean of the cathedral for vice chairman, and the penitenciario, magistral, doctoral, a racionero, and a secretary as members.

On July 29, 1871, Governor Basic Rafael Izquierdo ordered for a reassessment of the works executed within the cathedral and to find out which could possibly be accomplished, in order that in a span of two months, the cathedral could possibly be shielded from the approaching wet season, till such time the formal challenge proposal could possibly be accepted and reconstruction work may start once more. Nonetheless, Don Luciano Oliver couldn’t proceed to work on the challenge, and on October 3, 1871, he renounced his place as director.

Restoration underneath Archbishop Meliton Martinez

With the arrival from Rome of Archbishop Meliton Martinez, membership of the Junta or the cathedral restoration committee was modified by the Superior Decree of September 12, 1871. The brand new members can be composed of your complete Cabildo underneath the presidency of the archbishop.

The Junta met to elect and assign a brand new architect for the challenge. On October 23, 1871, Don Vicente Serrano y Salaverri was named formally as the brand new director of the challenge. On April 20, 1872, Serrano offered the memoria y planos, proposal and plans, of the reconstruction challenge. Within the mentioned proposal, modifications had been made within the buttresses and framework of the roof. The identical, with some modification by the Junta Consultativa de Obras Publicas, was accepted by advantage of the Royal Order of August 6, 1872.

Building underneath Archbishop Payo

Archbishop Pedro Payo labored with a lot zeal and tireless exercise for the cathedral in order that he was capable of receive simply the mandatory funds required to finish the construction. He even donated a part of his personal wealth to a number of works within the Manila Cathedral amongst which had been the development of the primary altar, the picture of the Immaculate Conception, the organ, and the reboque and portray of the bell tower.

Failing well being compelled Serrano to resign from his job as director of the cathedral reconstruction, in order that he was changed on October 31, 1873 by Eduardo Lopez Navarro, who was chief engineer of roads, canals, and ports within the colony. Serrano died a short time after Navarro changed him. Engineer Navarro continued to direct the work till April 10, 1878 when he needed to depart for Spain to recuperate his well being.

The brand new Manila Cathedral was inaugurated throughout a two-day festivity with solemn rites. On December 7, 1879, the Manila Cathedral was blessed and consecrated by Archbishop Payo. He blessed the outside and inside of the cathedral. Afterwards, the relics of two martyrs, San Victor and San Lorenzo, had been dropped at be stored within the cathedral’s Chapel of St. Peter.

Serrano’s Legacy – The 1879 Manila Cathedral

The cathedral rose as soon as once more to turn out to be the town’s premier temple. The Revival Kinds, which swept the circles of artwork and structure in Europe, made its influence within the Manila Cathedral when Architect Serrano employed a mode dentro del mismo estilo romano bizantino pero con mas gusto Oriental como satisfaccion a las exigencias de lugar -after the Romanesque-Byzantine type however with extra oriental taste satisfying the exigencies of the positioning. What advanced was an eclecticism combining and reviving the 2 types, with a lot affect too from the Renaissance.

The Secularization Subject and the Execution of Gomburza

The Manila Cathedral was witness to the motion to Filipinize parishes and to the tragic aftermath of its persecution. The difficulty of secularization within the Philippines had lengthy been a supply of battle among the many non secular regulars and church seculars. Amongst those that advocated strongly for the rights of the secular clergy had been Fathers Pedro Pelaez of the Manila Cathedral and Mariano Gomez of Cavite.

The GomBurZa

Just a few years later, on January 20, 1872, a mutiny broke out on the Cavite Arsenal over the unreasonable deductions within the salaries of the arsenal staff because of Gov. Gen. Izquierdo’s new tax imposition. Sympathizers for the employees mutineed that night time inflicting the demise of Sgt. La Madrid, the mutiny chief, and the fort commander whose spouse was additionally injured.

The Spanish authorities used this incident as an excuse to implicate those that had been advocating non secular reforms by connecting them to a separatist conspiracy.

Thus, the federal government arrested Fr. Gomez, together with the outspoken advocate of secularization, Fr. Jose Burgos, a younger physician of canon legislation, and Fr. Jacinto Zamora. They had been healed to a one-sided trial and publicly executed by mechanical strangulation at Bagumbayan on February 17, 1872.

The Earthquake of 1880

In 1880, the cathedral fell sufferer once more to a different earthquake. Its bell tower which survived the 1863 earthquake crumbled to the bottom and a makeshift one in every of wooden changed it. The dome underwent repairs after this incident.

The collapsed belfry after the 1880 earthquake

Nonetheless, the cathedral would stay with out a bell tower for a lot of eyras, despite plans and proposals to have it restored, till its cruel destruction by battle in the midst of the 20 th century.

The Late nineteenth Century

The closing of the nineteenth century had been turbulent ones, not just for the Church but additionally for your complete colony. The Philippine Revolution of 1896 and the Filipino-American Conflict, 1898-1902, noticed the transition of colonial energy from Spain to the USA. Throughout these durations, Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda opened the cathedral doorways to the Spanish troopers who sought refuge from the enemy and to the invading American troops who transformed it in 1898 right into a hospital for wounded American troopers.

The cathedral in 1899

The Catholic Church would expertise trials once more with the shift in colonial energy. The Cathedral of Manila witnessed the switch of management of the archdiocese to the American secular clergy. Regardless of the robust foothold that Protestantism and the Aglipayan Church gained through the early years of the 20 th century, the Catholic Church would stay steadfast and robust because the Archdiocese of Manila had been.

The First Half of the twentieth Century

As the 20 th century unfolded, a complete new ear dawned for the Archdiocese and Cathedral of Manila. The few years of this century noticed the final Spanish prelate of Manila Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda holding on to the reins of the Catholic hierarchy. Related to the informed and detested system of frailocracy in Spanish colonial Philippines, Nozaleda simply earned the popularity as probably the most unpopular archbishops within the historical past of the colony. The Philippine Revolution marked the reversal of fortune for Spain and the non secular who had been portrayed and thought of by not only some because the villain within the colony’s historical past of servitude, abuse, and oppression.

The Manila Cathedral underwent minor repairs and alterations through the first many years of the 20 th century previous to its merciless destruction through the Battle of Liberation in 1945. Though in 1915, Archbishop Jeremias Harty made slight repairs to carry again the cathedral to its former glory earlier than the Philippine Revolution and the Filipino-American Conflict, Serrano’s design was not modified. Thus, the 1879 cathedral survived till the Second World Conflict, with its primary types and options preserved and solely barely altered.

Within the Manila Cathedral had been held necessary non secular ceremonies to have fun the coronation of the Popes and their demise. In 1907, a major celebration was held to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of the Proclamation of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, an necessary occasion for the cathedral underneath whose titular patronage it was. Particular rites had been additionally carried out within the cathedral to look at the First nationwide Eucharistic congress held on December 11-15, 1929 and the 33 rd Worldwide Eucharistic Congress held on February 3-7, 1937. The cathedral additionally witnessed the Te Deum for the protected arrival of Calvo and Arnaiz, the primary Spanish aviators who flew from Spain to Manila. A solemn Te Deum and a particular mass to mark the event of the inauguration of the Philippine Commonweath in 1935 had been held within the Manila Cathedral.

Manila Cathedral Previous to World Conflict II

Throughout the interval earlier than World Conflict II, the Cathedral was described to be a stunning church replete with ornaments, furnishings, statues, and pictures of exceptional antiquity and sweetness. It had a number of chapels devoted to St. Joseph, Our Girl of Sorrows, St. Peter, Sacred Coronary heart, Our Girl of Mercy, St. John Nepomuceno, and Our Girl of Steerage. This latter chapel was often known as the Parroquia del Sagrario, the chapel which served because the parish church of Intramuros and residential of the picture of Nuestra Señora de Guia earlier than her switch to Ermita Church. The Cathedral additionally sheltered the Virgin of Antipolo in 1647, for a time frame, some years after the church was sacked and burned down through the Chinese language revolt in 1639, till her eventual set up once more in Antipolo Church. It was within the Chapel of Our Girl of Sorrows that the places of work for the lifeless had been generally carried out and the place, in a distinct segment, the stays of Msgr. Giovanni Battista Guidi, apostolic delegate through the American Occupation, had been interred.

The Eight Cathedral 1958 – Current

The current Manila Cathedral rose phoenix-like from the desolate ruins of the previous cathedral, which was bombed mercilessly together with the remainder of the Walled Metropolis through the Battle of Liberation in 1945. Asserting again its distinction and dignity as Manila’s premier temple and metropolitan seat of the Archdiocese, the current construction emerged within the midst of the pathetic remnants of Intramuros, its open areas colonized by squatters and its historic ruins transformed into cargo warehouses.

Cathedral ruins after destruction

For a few years after the battle, the shell of the Manila Cathedral stood earlier than the gaze of the statue of Carlos IV in Plaza Roma. The ruins of its well-known façade remained. There was the rose window with out the coloured glass and the three portals with their receding arches and the cathedral’s historic marker.

Actually, Archbishop Michael J. O’Doherty and Archbishop Gabriel Reyes contemplated on the thought of transferring it to Mandaluyong. It was solely by the efforts of Archbishop Rufino Santos that the cathedral was capable of reign once more in its rightful seat. Happily, the cathedral ruins had been left to face in place, nonetheless untouched by the bulldozers that leveled off a lot of the ruins of Intramuros.

The Manila Cathedral covers an space of just about 3,000 sq. meters. The current construction has a Latin-cross plan which intently follows the distribution of areas of the earlier cathedral-aisles are separated from the nave by arcaded colonnades, and several other chapels flank the nave.

The wonder and surprise of marble as a constructing materials stand out within the Manila Cathedral. The chapels are paved by extremely polished Carrara marble prefabricated in Italy. The primary altar, which has a two-meter excessive statue of the Immaculae Conception, is featured with pretty columns constructed out of inexperienced Carrara marble. Paving the remainder of the cathedral flooring are cream slabs of marble. Marble additionally discovered its method within the altars of the aspect chapels the place reliefs and mosaic panels add additional ornamental accents. Likewise, the pulpit and the Episcopal throne are made out of Italian marble.

The Manila Metropolitan Cathedral was solemnly consecrated on December 7, 1958 earlier than the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, a tribute to Our Girl underneath whose steering and patronage the Cathedral of Manila was capable of reign as queen of the Walled Metropolis, refuge of Manila’s denizens, and symbolic seat of the Catholic Church in Manila.

Pope Paul VI’s Go to to the Philippines

Within the Seventies, essentially the most memorable occasion that introduced 1000’s upon 1000’s to the mom church of the nation was maybe the go to to the Philippines of Pope Paul VI in November 1970. A marker on the base of the primary altar commemorates his pastoral go to within the presence of the traditional commemorated picture of Nuestra Señora de Guia.

Euphoric Reception to Jaime Cardinal Sin, thirtieth Archbishop of Manila

The following Archbishop of Manila got here from Aklan-the energetic and witty Jaime Sin of New Washington-a nephew of the late Archbishop Gabriel Reyes. On the steps of the cathedral, the place Manila’s clergy gathered to make their first encounter with their new pastor, Archbishop Sin declared: “As we speak Sin is Glorified.”

Three years later, your complete Philippines rose as one to welcome the third Filipino Prince of the Church. Archbishop Sin was the youngest Cardinal on this planet, and the cathedral was once more host to his reception. His youth and vitality had been referred to as upon to rehabilitate the St. Paul’s Hospital and the Cardinal Santos Memorial Hospital, which then boasted of knowledgeable medical workers and hospital gear second to none. The St. Joseph the Employee Basis, Radio Veritas, and varied charitable establishments had been additionally to obtain much-needed pictures within the arm.

Pope John Paul II’s Go to; Beatification of Lorenzo Ruiz

Undoubtedly, probably the most important non secular occasions within the Philippine ecclesiastical historical past was the beatification of the primary Filipino martyr Lorenzo Ruiz on the event of the go to of Pope John Paul II to the Philippines in February 1981. The much-loved Pope got here amidst cheers of Totus Tuus from the gang to have fun his first Mass on Philippine soil on the Manila Metropolitan Cathedral. Shortly thereafter, he informed Cardinal Sin that he needed the cathedral to be a Basilica.

Additional to the key structural repairs and renovations of Manila Cathedral, which had been blessed in a correct ceremonial ceremony throughout its forty fourth anniversary in December 2002, extra building tasks have been undertaken.

These are efforts of the Rector in reference to a unbroken “facelift program” for the Cathedral till it turns into absolutely furbished by the point it celebrates its Golden Anniversary in 2008.

2012 renovation and 2014 reopening

Reliquary-calendar with fragment bone of St. Caesarius of Terracina, deacon and martyr, Manila Cathedral. In photograph, cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle subsequent the brand new icon of Saint Caesarius.

The cathedral underwent repairs for earthquake retrofitting and subsidence prevention in 2012.

Throughout this time, the San Fernando de Dilao Church was designated because the non permanent official church (pro-cathedral) of the Archdiocese of Manila. Nonetheless, Msgr. Nestor Cerbo said that the cathedral would end its renovations on March 25, 2014.

Panorama of the cathedral inside

Some added options and modifications embody the set up of CCTV cameras, giant flat display screen tv screens (much like these present in Baclaran Church), improved audio-video techniques, and improved inside and exterior LED lightings. The cathedral accomplished its restoration on the mentioned date and was reopened to most of the people on April 9, 2014 after two years of renovation.

The go to of Pope Francis

On January 16, 2015, Pope Francis celebrated his first Papal Mass within the nation on the cathedral as a part of his apostolic go to to the Philippines. The mass was celebrated for the bishops, clergymen, and the clergy in three languages: Latin, English, and Filipino.

Entrance view of The Cathedral in Intramuros, Manila as of April 2015

Particulars of the Shrine

The northwest façade is a duplicate of the façade of the earlier cathedral, together with statues of well-known saints sculpted in Roman travertine stone. A number of of the artworks contained in the basilica had been made by Italian artists. Within the earlier cathedral, they had been initially fabricated from molave wooden. The statue of Saint Rose of Lima was sculpted by Angelo Fattinanzi; Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew, and Saint Anthony the Abbot by Livia Papini; and Saint Francis Xavier and Saint Polycarp by Alcide Tico.

Inscription on the tympanum of the primary portal

The tympanum above the central northwest doorways bears the Latin inscription Tibi cordi tuo immaculato concredimus nos ac consecramus (English: “To thy Immaculate Coronary heart, entrust us and consecrate us”).

The papal arms had been
added in 1981 to indicate
the cathedral’s standing as
a basilica.

Previous to 1988, the bronze statue of the Immaculate Conception in the primary altar, by nationwide Italian sculptor Vincenzo Assenza, was painted gold till 1988 (although the twelve star halo-aureola is stable gold). Inscribed on the baldachin above the statue of the Immaculate Conception is the Latin antiphon Tota pulchra es, Maria, et macula originalis non est in Te (English: “Thou artwork all-beautiful, Mary, and the unique stain [spot] (of sin) is just not in thee.”).

The baptismal font and angel-shaped holy water fonts are additionally fabricated from stable bronze by Publio Morbiducci; the outstanding mosaic of Saint Jude Thaddeus was made by Marcello Mazzoli. The 134 trendy stained glass home windows had been made in 1964 by Filipino artist Galo Ocampo. The window set, which was a programme of Marian themes, was commissioned and funded by Cardinal Santos.

The creative designs of the stained glass home windows of the Manila Cathedral are largely merchandise of the inventive genius of Ocampo, probably the most versatile modern Filipino artists throughout his time and a recipient of the 1964 Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award from the town authorities of Manila.

The marble flooring on the middle aisle close to the altar bears the coat of arms of 4 cardinal archbishops of Manila: Rufino Santos, Jaime Sin, Gaudencio Rosales, and Luis Antonio Tagle.

The patinated dome surmounted by a four-armed cross


The cathedra or episcopal throne of the Archbishop of Manila was put in through the postwar reconstruction in 1958. It’s fabricated from Mexican onyx and marble from Carrara, Italy, and was designed and made by the Istituto Internazionale d’Arte Liturgica in Rome.

The cathedra, newer excessive altar, pulpit, and altar rail

The unique cathedra bears the coat of arms of then Archbishop Rufino Santos earlier than he was created a cardinal. His coat of arms and the Mexican onyx was lined by a stone till its restoration in 2021. 

Shrine Rectors

  • Artemio Gabriel Casas, (1956–1962)
  • Jose C. Abriol, P.A. (1962–1975)
  • Augusto Pedrosa, H.P. (1975–1985)
  • Domingo A. Cirilos Jr., P.C. (1985–1996)
  • Hernando M. Coronel, P.C. (1996–2002)
  • Nestor C. Cerbo, P.C. (2002–2015)
  • Reginald R. Malicdem, (2015–current)

Burials and Funerals

The cathedral crypt is the resting place for former archbishops of Manila and some different prelates:

  • Michael J. O’Doherty, the final international archbishop of Manila
  • Gabriel M. Reyes, the primary Filipino archbishop of Manila
  • Rufino J. Cardinal Santos, the primary Filipino cardinal
  • Jaime L. Cardinal Sin, a outstanding chief of the 1986 Individuals Energy Revolution
  • Dom Ambrose Agius, bishop and Apostolic Delegate to the Philippines (till 1945; stays transferred to the Abbey of Our Girl of Montserrat, Mendiola Road, Manila)

Two former presidents had been permitted to lie in state underneath the cathedral dome:

  • Carlos P. Garcia, eighth president of the Philippines (1957–1961) (d. 1971)
  • Corazon C. Aquino, eleventh president of the Philippines (1986–1992) (d. 2009)

Manila Cathedral Schedule of Lots

  • Mondays to Fridays – 7:30 AM and 12:10 PM
  • Saturdays – 7:30 AM ONLY
  • Sundays – 8:00 AM, 10:00 AM, and 6:00 PM

Manila Cathedral Workplace Hours

  • Tuesdays to Saturdays – 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM
  • Sundays – 8:00 AM to 11:30 AM
  • Closed on Mondays and Holidays


For individuals who are coming with non-public autos, taking a taxi journey, TNVS or in case you are taking a stroll tour round Intramuros, you’ll be able to simply search “Manila Cathedral” on Waze or Google Maps for instructions.

By Public Commuting

In the event you’re taking public transportation, it’s finest to journey LRT. Out of your cease, get off at Taft Station after which take one other northbound practice journey to Monumento. The LRT and the MRT are interlinked. Get off at Carriedo Station, then journey a jeepney in entrance of Santa Cruz Church certain to Pier and get off in entrance of Manila Cathedral.


The Manila Cathedral

Tackle: Cabildo cor. Beaterio St., Intramuros, Manila, Philippines 1002

Open Hours: 7am to 5pm day by day

Contact Nos.: (632) 8 527-3093, (632) 8 527-1796, (632) 8 527-3889, (632) 8 527-3876

E-mail Tackle: (Donna Santos, Part Head – Workplace Providers)


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